Europe the rule-maker
The two other ‘Os’ — open innovation and open science — have been a significant focus of Moedas’s political energy over the past four years. This has given rise to the European Open Science Cloud, a virtual repository for data produced by Europe’s 1.7 million publicly funded researchers. And streams of work are ongoing under the Open Science Policy Platform on issues such as scholarly publishing, rewards and incentives, next-generation metrics and research integrity. These will come to fruition in the final design of Horizon Europe, to be unveiled over the next few months.